Monthly Archives: December 2014

THE SIX COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT CHRISTMAS

INTRODUCTION

Christmas is a time for friends, families, cheer, giving, and general annoyance. It is also a time for celebration, gifts, etc. A lot of traditions have grown up around christmas, and a lot of misconceptions have too. Below is the list of six common misconceptions about christmas that are repeated every year.

#1. MATRYMONY BETWEEN JOSEPH AND MARY
Joseph and Mary were betrothed to get married when he was told by an angel of Mary’s pregnancy. They had likely signed the ‘Katubbah’ which was the Jewish contract for engagement. As intructed by the angel, Joseph took Mary as his wife but did not consumate the marriage until after the birth of Jesus. So publicly they were married, but technically, since they had not consumated it, you can say that they were not married yet.

#2. JESUS WAS NOT BORN IN A MANGER
When Joseph and Mary arrived Bethlehem, since no room was available at any guest chamber (inn), they went to the place were livestocks were kept. In those days, places like these were small grottos or caves. According to the 7th advanced Oxford dictionary, a manger is a long open box that horses and cows can eat from; that is to say that the manger was actually in the cave and not the other way round. So after the birth of the baby Jesus, his mother wrapped him in strips of cloths and laid him in a manger. These were the two signs given to the shepherds by the angel.

#3. JESUS WAS NOT BORN ON 25TH OF DECEMBER
According to research, it is likely that he was born somewhere between 3-5B.C and likely in the spring. December 25th is a traditional date which was first mentioned in the Roman almanac in the 3rd century. According to Clement of Alexandria, several different days had been proposed by various Bible scholars but certainly December 25th was never mentioned by any of them. As at then, December 25th was the feast day of the unconquered sun, decreed by the pagan emperor Aurelian in 274 A.D. This day was later converted into the celebration of the birth of the Son of God by emperor Constantine who had already made Christianity the effective religion in Rome. The Church of Rome officially celebrated the first christmas on 25 of December, 336 A.D.

#4. THE NATIVITY SCENE
The nativity scene that we see today is totally different and not at all biblically accurate. Two gospels talk about the famous scene, Luke and Matthew. Matthew talk about the wise men while Luke mentions the shepherd going to see the infant king; but the two groups were never together at the time of their visits. There is no specific mention of animals and the gospels say nothing of an angel witnessing the birth of the king. This belief started when St. Francis of Assis first staged a live nativity show in 1223 A.D. At that time, Masses were in Latin, and not assesible to most poeple. So instead of learning the Bible from the church, they learned about it from plays like the nativity show. Two animals-donkey and ox- in particular are almost always included in the nativity scenes, but neither of them are mentioned in the gospels.

#5. KINGS OR SCHOLARS?
This is one of the most popular misconceptions about christmas. Some say they were kings riding carmels and following a star of Bethlehem to see the infant king. But this is totaly different from what the gospel of Matthew says. In Matthew 2:1-12, some group of men visited king Herod, asked for the new born king of the Jewsh, and then met him with his mother in a house where they worsheped him. He did not say that they were kings, that that were three in number or that they even rode carmels. These were refered to as magoi, a Latin word for magic, so far from being kings, they were astrologers, they were not even three in number because according to history, they had been elevated to the rank of preisthood before they visited the king, so probably they were many but dicided to pick out three among them to present the gifts on their behalf to the king. Nine presons can present three gifts and one person can also present three gifts. So they were certainly not three in number. They were not kings either.

#6. THE WISE MEN WERE NOT PRESENT AT THE NATIVITY.
Contrary to what we see in pictures today, the wise men were never present at the birth of Jesus. According to the gospel of Matthew 2:7, when the wise men met with king Herod, they apparently told him that the star had appeared two years ago. This could have been the reason why king Herod ordered the killings of all boys in Bethlehem at the age of two and below. Obviously he was no longer a baby but a samll child who had started walking and playing with sand. The wise men visited him two years after his birth and met him at home and not in a manger as we see today. Perhaps it took them two years the study and understand the star that appeared to them.

Let us try to correct these misconceptions about christmas in order to have a better understanding of the nativity story.

MERRY CHRISTMAS AND A HAPPY NEW YEAR TO YOU ALL.

THE BOOK OF BOOKS (PART FOUR)- MAJOR EVENTS AND PLACES

There are still so many things yet to be discovered in the Bible due to its size. Below is list of maor events recorded in the Bible.

EVENTS

OLD TESTAMENTS
* Creation………………………………….Gen.1
* Noah and the flood……………..Gen.7
* The tower of Babylon………Gen.11
* The offering of Isaac…………Gen.22
* Sodom and Gomorrah……..Gen.19
* Crossing the Red Sea……….Ex.14
* Ascension of Elijah…………..2Kgs.2

NEW TESTAMENT
* birth of Jesus………………………..Mt.2
* Baptism of Jesus…………………Lk.3
* Last Supper………………………….Jn.13
* Death of Jesus……………………Mt.27
* Ascension of Jesus……………Mk.16
* the Holy Spirit…………………..Acts 2
* Conversion of Paul………….Acts 9
* Wedding at Cana……………Jn.2

PLACES
* Garden of Eden.
* Canaan
* Sodom
* Gomorrah
* Egypt
* Israel
* Jerusalem
* Judah
* Judea
* Red Sea
* Upper Room
* Syria
* Greece
* Golgotha
* Phillipines
* Galilee
* Mesopotamia
* Mediterranean Sea
* River Jordan
* Babylon
* Antioch
* Bethlehem
* Nazareth
* Mount Sinai
* Palestine
* Damascus
* Rome

MAKE THE BIBLE YOUR COMPANION!

THE BOOK OF BOOKS (PART THREE)- LIST OF MAJOR BIBLICAL FIGURES

Below are the names of major figures in the Bible.

OLD TESTAMENT

PROPHETS
* Moses
* Joshua
* Gideon
* Samuel
* Nathan
* Elijah
* Elisha
* Isaiah
* Jeremiah
* Ezekiel
* Daniel
* Hosea
* Habakkuk
* Amos
* Obadiah
* Jonah
* Micah
* Zephaniah
* Zachariah
* Malachi

KINGS
* Abimelech
* Saul
* David
* Solomon
* Nebuchadnezzar
* Pharaoh

PRIESTS
* Aaron
* Eleazar
* Eli
* Melchizedek
* Phinehas

HOLY MEN AND WOMEN
* Noah
* Job
* Hannah
* Enoch
* Naomi
* Jacob
* Isaac
* Abraham
* Lot
* Joseph
* Sarah
* Esther

OTHERS
* Adam
* Eve
* Cain
* Abel
* Queen Jezebel
* Ruth
* Jonathan
* Rachel
* Rebecca
* Benjamin

NEW TASTAMENT

SACRED RULERS
* Herod the Great
* Herod Antipas
* Pontius Pilate
* Agrippa
* Felix, governor of Judea

PROPHETS
* Agabus
* Zechariah
* Simeon
* John the baptist

PRIESTS
* Caiaphas the high priest
* Annas, first high priest
* Zachariah, father of John d baptist

FAMILY OF JESUS
* Jesus
* Mary
* Joseph

THE FOLLOWERS OF JESUS CHRIST
* Matthew
* Mark
* Luke
* John d baptist
* John d beloved
* Jude
* Philip
* James the just
* Thomas
* Simeon the Zalot
* Judas Iscariot
* John, son of Zebedee
* Bartholomeo
* Andrew
* Nathaniel
* Peter
* Judas, son of James
* Mathias
* Paul
* Barnabas
* Joseph of Arimathea
* Mary Magdalene
* Lazarus
* Pricillia
* Stephen
* Epaphras
* Mary
* Martha
* philemon
* Silas
* Necodemus
* Apollos
* Aquila
* Dionysius d Aropagite
* Onesimus
* Timothy
* Titus
* Zacchaeus
* Silas
* Elizabeth

REFERENCE: Good News Bible, King James version and Bible dictionary.

THE BOOK OF BOOKS (PART TWO)- MORE AMAZING FACTS, FIGURES AND UNUSUAL THINGS/EVENTS

QUOTE
Best way to study the Bible: ready a particular chapter, ask every stupid questions you can think of, and then find answers to your questions- STEVE RAY

HISTORY
The Bible was written by about 40 men over a period of about 1600 years dating from 1500BCE to about 100 years after Christ.
* The first translation of the English Bible was initiated by John Wycliffe and was completed by John Purvay in 1388
* Divided into chapters by Stephen Langaton in 1228 the old testament was divided in to verses by R. Nathan in 1488
* New testament was divided into verses by Robert Stephanus in 1551.
* The entire Bible divided into chapters and verses first appeared in the Geneve Bible of 1560.
* Middle book of the old testament is PROVERBS
* Middle book of the new testament is 2THESSALONIANS

CHAPTERS
A) FACTS AND FIGURES
* All chapters…………1189
* Old testament…….292
* New testament….260
* Middle chapter…..Psalm 118:8
* Middle chapter of the old testament…………..Job 29
* Middle chapter of new testament…………..Romans 13
* Longest chapter..Psalm 119
* Shortest chpater..Psalm117

B) SOME GREAT GOLDEN CHAPTERS
* Ascension…………………..Acts 1
* Bread of life………………John 6
* Beatitudes…………………Matthew 5
* Brotherhood……………..Romans 14
* Comfort………………………Psalm 23
* Confession…………………Psalm 51
* Consecreation…………..Philippins 3
* Converts…………………….Psalm 32
* Deliverance……………….Acts 12
* Divinity………………………John 1
* Faith……………………………Hebrews 11
* Friuts…………………………..John 13
* Gifts…………………………….1Corint. 12
* Good shepherd…………John 10
* Holy Spirit………………….John 14
* Humility……………………..John 13
* Joy……………………………….Isaiah 12
* Judgement………………..Matthew 25
* Law……………………………..Exodus 20
* Love…………………………….1Corint. 13
* Intercession……………….John 17
* Messiah……………………….Isaiah 53
* New covenant…………..Hebrews 8
* Omnisscience…………….Psalm 139
* Passover…………………….Exodus 12
* Prayer…………………………Daniel 6
* Praize………………………….Psalm 103
* Ressurection……………..1Corin. 15
* Temperance………………Proverbs 23
* Transfiguration………..Matthew 17
* Tongue……………………….James 3

VERSES
* All verses…………………….31,173
* Old testament……………23,214
* New testament…………7,959
* Middle verse of old testament…………………..2Chr. 20:17
* Middle verse of new testament……………………Acts 17:17
* Longest verse…………….Esther 8:9
* Shortest verse……………John 11:35

WORDS
* Total words……………………773,692
* Old testament……………….592,439
* New testament…………….181,253
* Letters…………………………….3,566,480
the longest word with 18 letters can be found in Isaiah 8:1
Daniel 4:37 contains all letters except ‘Q’

WORDS THAT APPEARED ONLY ONCE
these are some of the words that appeared just once in the Bible:
* Eternity……………….Isaih 57:15
* Reverend…………….Psalm 111:9
* Grandmother…….Timothy 157
* Gnat……………………..Matthew 23:24

UNUSUAL THINGS/EVENTS FOUND IN THE BIBLE
* Sons of God married daughters of men (Gen.6:2)
* A man used a stone for a pillow (Gen.28:11)
* Man who was sopken to by the ass (Num.22:28-29)
* Women who shaved their heads before marriage (Deu.21:11-13)
* Women were forbidden to wear men’s clothing (Deu.22.5)
* Sun stood still for a whole day (Josh.10:13)
* Men lapped water like dogs (Jud.7:5)
* Man whose hair wieghed about 6.5lbs at his annual hair cut (2Sam.14:26)
* Man who had twelve fingers and twelve toes (2Sam.21:20)
* Sun travelled backwards (Is.38:8)
* Man walked naked for three years (Is.20:2-3)
* Army of 185,000 destroyed in one night (Is.37:36).

“All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching the truth, rebuking error, correcting faults, and giving instruction for right living, so that the person who serves God may be fully qualified and equipped to do every kind of good deed” 2 TIMOTY 3:16-17.

GOD BLESS YOU ALL AS YOU MAKE THE HOLY BIBLE YOUR DAILY COMPANION. AMEN.

THE BOOK OF BOOKS (PART TWO)-AMAZING FACTS

N.B Feel free to check them youselves, and if you find an error, please notify me. Thanks

THE BIBLE
DO YOU KNOW?
* the Bible has 66books
* old testament-39books
* new testament-27books
* shortest book-2John
* longest book-Psalm

CHAPTERS
* 1189 chapters
* old testament chapters- 292
* new testament chapters- 260
* longest chapter- Psalm 119
* shortest chapter- Psalm 117
* midle chapter- Psalm 118:8
* verses- 31,173
* old testament verses- 23,214
* new testament verses- 7,959
* longest verse- Esther 8:9
* shortest verse- John 11:35
* words- 773,692
* words in old testament-592,439
* words in new testament-181,253
* letters- 3,566,480
*promises- 1260
* prophesies- 8000
* questions- 3294
* reference to the second coming of Jesus: O.T- 1845, N.T.- 318
* longest sentence- Eph 1:3-4
* most used word ‘the’- 24000 times

THE ‘FIRST’S’
* First left handed man-Ehurd (Jud 3:15)
* Er was first to be killed by God because of his wickedness (Gen.38:7)
* Lamech was the first polygamist(Gen.4:19)
* first Christian martyr was Stephen(Acts 6:7)
* first apaostle martyr was James(Acts12:1-2)
* first color to be mentioned in the Bible was color green(Gen.1- 30)
* Miriam was the first woman to sing in the Bible(Ex.15:21)
* first iron bed was owned by King Og(Deu.3:11)
* Enoch was the first to prophecy in the Bible(Jude 14)
* Joseph was the first to shave(Gen.41:4)
* the first question God asked in the Bible was ‘where art thou?'(Gen.3:9)

GENERAL: DO YOU KNOW?
* Methuselah was the oldest man- 969 years
* only H more persons lived over 900:
* Adam-930yrs
* Seth- 912yrs
* Enosh- 905yrs
* Kenana- 910yrs
* Jared- 962yrs
* Noah- 950yrs
* Dogs were mentioned 41 times in the Bible
* Dililah did not cut Samson’s hair(Jud.16-19)
* the only place an apple tree is mentioned is in Song of Songs 2:3
* the most quoted old testament book in the new testament is ISAIAH-419 times
* second is the book of Psalms- 414 times
* Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines
* ‘David’ was mentioned 1139 times in the new testament
* ‘Sarah’ was mentioned most among other women- 59 times followed by Rachel-47 times
* there are 7 Mary’s in the new testament
* the book of Job was written before the book of Exodus
* ‘God’ was not mentioned in the book of Esther
* the longest word in the Bile is ‘MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ’
* EVERY QUOTE THE jesus used on Satan was from the book of Deuteronomy
* Jesus quoted Genesis 25 times
* Jesus, Moses and Elijah fasted for 40days
* Bethlehem means Ahouse of bread’
* 125 animals were mentioned in the Bible
* Solomon wrote 3000 proverbs and 1005 songs
* 12 books of the Bible starts with ‘J’
* Jesus asked 107 questions in the new testamnent
* the ‘Law’ has 613 articles
* “verily I say unto you” was used 77 times in the Bible
* Ball was mentioned only once- Is.22-18
* there was a man named ‘SO’- 2kin.17:4, another named ‘HEN’ Zch.6:14
* the names of the wise men with gifts were: Gasper, Bathazar and Melechior
* Salt was mentioned 41 times
* Hate was mentioned 81 times
* Love was mentioned 310 times
* only Joseph was buried with a coffin
* there is no letter J in Ezra 7:21
* three men were named DODO: the grandfather of Tola-Jud.10:1, the father of Eleazar-2Sam 23:9 and the father of Elhanan-2Sam. 23:t4
* Acts and 2Peter never used the word LOVE
* the letter X is not used in the King James Version of the Bible.
* Acts of the Apostles is the longest book in the new testament
* the Bible is the only book that has been translated into 600 languages

SEVEN PEOPLE COMMITTED SUICIDE IN THE BIBLE
* Zimri (1Kin 16:18)
* Samson (Jud. 16:25)
* Saul (1Sam. 31:4-5)
* Abimelech (Jud.9:53-54)
* Ahithophel (2Sam.17:23)
* Saul’s armorbearer (1Sam.31:5)
* Judas Ischariot (Mt.27:3-5)
* Ahithophel and Judas Ischariot were the only two to die by hanging

PEOPLE WERE RAISED FROM DEAD IN TEN DIFFERENT PLACES
* Elisha raised Shunammites daughter (2kin. 18:37)
* a dead man rose from dead when he was set on the dead bones of Elisha (3Kin.13:20-21)
* Jesus raised weodow’s son (Lk.7:11-15)
* Jesus raised daughter of Jairus (Lk.8:41-42)
* Jesus raised Lazarus (Jn.11:1-46)
* Jesus ressurected (Mt.28)
* Saints rose from the dead (Mt.27:51)
* Peter raised Tabitha (Acts 9:36- 51)
* Paul raised Eutydus (Acts20:9- 12).
* have you read your Bible from cover to cover? If you have’nt, then you need to. It will take you 3days to read from cover to cover.

PART THREE COMING SOON!
TO BE CONTINUED…….

THE BOOK OF BOOKS (PART ONE)- HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

The Bible is a canonical collection of sacred texts in Judaism and Christianity. The first part of the Bible which is refered to as the old testament contains at minimum 24 books of the Hebrew scriptures diveded into 39 books and ordered differently from the Hebrew Bible. The second part is the new testament with 27 books. The Roman Catholic Church holds strongly certain deuterocanonical books and passages to be part of the old testament canon.

ETYMOLOGY

The word Bible is from the Latin word biblia, the Latin biblia is a short for biblia sacra meaning holy books.

HISTORY

The bible was first called scriptures in the 2nd century by the Jewish group, and later refered to as holy.
Translated into Greek in the 3rd century during the solidification of the Hebrew. In the 13th century, the bible was divided into chapters by Stephen Langton and later into verses by Robert Estienne in the 16th century.
The holy books were historically written by 40 men -under the guidiance of the Holy Spirit-over a span of about 1,600 years from the time of Moses to the time of Apostle John. The book of Malachi which is the last in the old testament was written in 443B.C, while the first book of the new testamnet-Matthew was written in 40 A.D leaving a gap of 500 year between the old and new testaments.

DEVELOPMENT

OLD TESTAMENT

The first part of the Bible is called the old testament, also refered to as the Hebrew scriptures or Tanakh. This part is divided into 3: the
* five books of Moses
* the Prophets
* the Writings.

THE FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES
The five books of Moses (the teachings or law) contains:
* Genesis,
* Exodus
* Leviticus
* Numbers
* Deuteronomy.

THE PROPHETS
This book contains 2sub-groups: major prophets:
* Isaiah
* Jerimiah
* Ezekeil
minor prophets:
* Hosea
* Amos
* Obadiah
* Jonah
* Micha
* Nahum
* Habakkuk
* Zephaniah
* Hagai
* Zachariah
* Malachi.

THE WRITINGS
* The Psalms
* Proverbs
* Jobs
* Song of Songs
* Ruth
* Lamentation
* Ecclesiatis
* Esther
This books were designed as authoritative in the Jewish canon and was completed in 2nd century. Other books are:
* Daniel
* Ezra
* Nehemiah
* Chronicles

SEPTUAGINT

The septuagint is the translation of the Hebrew scriptures and some related texts into the Greek language which began in the 3rd century and was completed in 132 BCE.

DEUTEROCANONICAL BOOKS.

The deuterocanonical books are:
* Tobit,
* Judith
* Esther
* Wisdom of Solomon
* Baruch
* Leter of Jeremiah
* Prayer of Azariah
* Sussana
* Bel and the Dragon
* Maccabees
* Esdras
* Prayer of Manasseh.
These books were often refered to as deuterocanonical because they were not found in the protocanonical books.

PSEUDEPRIGRAPHAL TEXTS
These texts decribes numerous works of the Jewish religious literatures written about 300BCE to 300CE. Some of the books are:
* Asumption of Moses
* Books of Enoch
* Books of Jubilees
* Life of Adam and Eve
* Psalms of Solomon
* book of Baruch.
N.B the Books of Enoch are ancient Jewish religious works traditionally ascribed to Enoch.

NEW TESTAMENT
The new testament is the second part of the Bible wich contains 27books:
* Four canonical Gospels,
* Acts of the Apostles,
* Pauline Epistles,
* Pastoral Epistles,
* General Epistles
* the book of revelation.
The new testatment was written in a form of Koine Greek which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranian from the conquest of Alexander the great c 335-323BC until the evolution of Byzantine Greek in 600CE. Though the original Greek wiritngs and manuscripts did not survive, copies of them historically did. During the Protestant Reform, certain reformers proposed different canonical lists of those currently in use.
The Bible today is widely considered to be the best selling book of all time, and has a major influence on literature and history.
The new testament books are ordered differently in the Catholic, Othodox and Protestants traditions. TO BE CONTINUED…

THE NINE CIRCLES OF HELL

INTRODUCTION
The nine circles of hell is an allegorical classification and discription of hell. Those who comitted delibrate sins are judged beyond the first circle and are condemned to the eight lower cirlces by the serpentine Minos.
The lower circles are structured according to the classical Aristotelian conception of virtue and vice. The lower parts of hell are contained within walls of a city called Dis which surrounded by Mansh and guarded by fallen angels. Also the last two circles of hell punishes sins of consious fraud and treachery.

THE FIRST CIRCLE-LIMBO

Limbo here, is seen as a place of rest for the unbaptised and pagans who, though not sinful, did not accepet Christ. There are green fields and a castle here. The castle has seven gates representing the seven virtues. The castle is the dweling place of the wisest men of antiquity, mathematicians, poets, scientists, philosophers, queens, and other historical figures.

THE SECOND CIRCLE-LUST

The first souls to be punished in hell are those overcome by lust. They are blown back and forth by the terrible winds of a violent storm without rest for eternity.

THE THIRD CIRCLE-GLUTTONY

The souls in this circle are guarded by a great worm called Cerberus.
The are punished for over indulgence in food, drinks and other kinds of addiction.

THE FOURTH CIRCLE-GREED

Those whose attitude towards material goods deviated from the appropriate mean are punished in this circle. They include pastors, priests, popes, cardinals, bishops, etc.

THE FIFTH CIRCLE-ANGER

In this cirlce, there is a river called Styx with swampy waters in it. The souls here fight each other on the surface of the swampy waters everyday for eternity.

THE SIXTH CIRCLE-HERESY

This is the dweling place of Leviathan-one of the first three angels to fall from heaven. Leviathan tempts people to give in to heresy. The souls here are trapped in flaming tombs.

THE SEVENTH CIRCLE-VIOLENCE

Violence is one of the last three cirlces with division. It is divided into three rings:

OUTER RING: this ring houses the violent against people and properties. Souls here are immersed in a river of boilling blood and fire called Phegethon.

MIDDLE RING: suicides and profligates. Suicides are transformed into thorny bushes and trees and are fed upon by Harpies. (the trees are a metaphor for the state of mind inwhich suicide is comitted). Profligates are chased by ferocious dogs for eternity.

OUTER RING: Violent against God-blasphemers and violent against nature-sodomites are punished here. They live in a desert of flaming sand. Blasphemers lie on the sand while sodomites wonder about in groups for eternity.

THE EIGHT CIRCLE-FRAUD

This circle is divided into ten Bolgia or Ditches of sones.

BOLGIA1: panderers and seducers march in separate lines in opposites directions, whipped by demons. They march for eternity.

BOLGIA2: here flatterers steep in human excrement which represents the words the produced.

BOLGIA3: souls here are placed head first in a rock like baptisimal font with flames burning on the soles of their feets.

BOLGIA4: socerers, astrologists and fake prophets have their heads twisted back wards so that they walk back wards because they can’t see ahead of them.

BOLGIA5: corrupt politicians are immersed in a lake of boilling pitch which represents the dark secrets of their corrupt deals.

BOLGIA6: hypocrites walk along wearing gilded lead cloks which represents d falsety behind the surface of their actions.

BOLGIA7: thieves are chased and bitten by snakes and lizards for eternity.

BOLGIA8: evil counsellors are concealed within individual flames.

BOLGIA9: here a demon tears the bodies of schesmitics like Muhammed-who founded Islam- into parts.

BOLGIA10: alchemists, conterfeiters, perjurers and impostors are afflicted with different kinds of diseases.

THE NINETH CIRCLE-TREACHERY

Treachery is the nineth and last circle in hell. This circle is surrounded by giants and is divided into four rounds. Includes kindred traitors, political traitors, traitors of the guests, and traitors of the lords.

ROUND1: named Cain after Cain who killed his borther. The souls here are immersed in ice to their chins.

ROUND2: named Antenora, political traitors. Same punishment with d first round.

ROUND3: named Ptolemaea- traitors to guests-punished lyin in ice wich covers them to their faces.

ROUND4. This is the dwelling place of those whose sins are eternal. It is named Judaea, after Judas who betrayed Jesus. It is the ring for the traitors of the lords. All the souls here are completely encapsulated in ice, disturted in all conceivable positions. In the cenre of Hell, condemned for comitting the ultimate sin (personal treachery against the Most High) is Satan together with Judas Ischariot. These two recieves the most horrifying turture in hell.

OH OUR GOOD LORD JESUS, FORGIVE US OUR SINS. SAVE US FROM THE FIRES OF HELL. LEAD U